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Historic Pinewood Theme Path

A secular reality 

The historic pine forest embodies what in the collective imagination is the 'dark forest' referred to by Dante.

It is a mature forest (climax forest), in which ecological dynamics have achieved balance and stability.

We find trees of different ages, shrubs of different development, small areas with clearings, patches of bushes and lianas.

Here, the pine forest is lush, multi-layered, uneven-aged and also has a great richness in terms of the number of species present (biodiversity).

Three different habitats are present: pine forest, holm oak forest and deciduous forest.

The botanical composition includes:
Milano Marittima Pinewood historic forest path

  • maritime pines (Pinus pinea)
  • holm oaks (Quercus ilex)

and deciduous species such as:

  • oak (Quercus robur)
  • downy oak (Quercus pubescens)
  • ash trees (Fraxinus angustifolia)
  • elms (Ulmus leavis and Ulmus angustifolia)

Among shrubs, they are frequent:

  • strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo)
  • Phillyrea latifolia
  • Rhamnus alaternus
  • Pistacia terebinthus
  • Viburnum tinus
  • Erica arborea
  • Asparagus acutifolius
  • Emerus majus

among the lianas Rubia peregrina, Smilax aspera, Lonicera implexa

The herbaceous layer is generally very poor; characteristic species include Asplenium onopteris, Cyclamen hederifolium, C. repandum, Carex distachya, C. halleriana, Limodorum abortivum.

Sensory game

The path you are crossing is dense with vegetation, the shrubs are giant and the bushes lower, there is a lot of life,
the suggestion here is to sit down, close your eyes and listen to the forest,
try to recognise the chirping of different birds, the sound of the wind through the leaves,
the falling of fruit from the trees, hear what it is whispering to you.




The ecological biodiversity of an environment represents the variety of organisms that make it up.

In a mature forest, it is very high, both in terms of vegetation and the large number of animal species that find shelter and food.

The birdlife nesting in the pine forest includes:

  • Ortolan (Emberiza hortulana)
  • Scops Owl (Otus scops)
  • Hoopoe (Upupa epops)
  • Wryneck (Jynx torquilla)
  • Common Whitethroat (Sylvia communis)
  • Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata)
  • Gadwall (Hippolais icterina)

and different communities of migratory Passeriformes.

Mammals include the presence of the Noctule (Nyctalus noctula), a rare forest bat associated with the presence of large trees with cavities suitable for the establishment of reproductive colonies.

Among the reptiles, the Mediterranean Luscengola (Chalcides chalcides) and the snake Saettone (Elaphe longissima) are present.

Among the invertebrates, we highlight the Coleoptera Cerambyx cerdo, linked to forest environments with oak trees, and the Lepidoptera Lycaena dispar linked to the herbaceous vegetation of marshy areas.

Typical of pine forests, the forest beetle Polyfilla fullo is also present.

Historic Pinewood Path

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